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Keeper: A piece of soft iron that is placed on or between the poles of a magnet, decreasing the reluctance of the air gap and thereby reducing the flux leakage from the magnet.

Knee of the Demagnetization Curve: The point at which the B-H curve ceases to be linear. All magnet materials, even if their second quadrant
curves are straight line at room tempera-
ture, develop a knee at some temperature. Alnico 5 exhibits a knee at room temperature. If the operat-
ing point of a magnet falls below the knee, small changes in H produce large changes in B, and the magnet will not be able to recover
its original flux output without remagnetization.

Leakage Flux: That portion of the magnetic flux that is lost through leakage in the magnetic circuit due to saturation or air-gaps, and is therefore unable to be used.

Length of Air-Gap, Lg: The Length of the path of the central flux line in
the air-gap.

Load Line: A line drawn from the origin of the Demagnetization Curve with a slope of B/H, the intersection of which with the B-H curve represents the operating point of the magnet. Also see Permeance Coeffcient.

Magnetic Circuit: An assembly consisting of some or all of the following:permanent magnets, ferromagnetic conduction elements, air gaps,
electrical currents.

Magnetizing Force, H: The magnetomotive force per unit length at any point in a magnetic circuits. Measured in oersteds in the cgs system.

Magnetomotive Force, F: Analogous to voltage in electrical circuits, this is the magnetic potential difference between any two points.

Maximum Energy Product, BHmax: The point on the Demagnetization Curve where the product of B and H is a maximum and the required volume of
magnet material required to project a given energy into its surroundings is a minimum. Measured in Mega Gauss Oersteds, MGOe.

North Pole: That pole of a magnet which, when freely suspended, would pointto the north magnetic pole of the earth. The definition of polarity can be a confusing issue, and it is often best to clarify by using "north seeking pole" instead of" north pole" in speciications.

Oersted, Oe: A cgs unit of measure used to describe magnetizing force. The English system equivalent is Ampere Turns per Inch, and the SI system's is Ampere Turns per Meter.

Orientation Direction: The direction in which an anisotropic manet should be magnetized in order to achieve optimum magnetic properties. Also known
as the "axis"," easy axis", or"angle of inclination".

Paramagnetic Material: A material having a permeability slightly greater than 1.

Permeance: The inverse of reluctance, analogous to coductance in electrical circuits.

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