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Permeance Coefficient, Pc: Ratio of the magnetic induction, Bd, to its self demagnetizing force, Hd. Pc=Bd/ Hd. his is also known as the "load line" or
operating point of the magnet, and is useful inestimating the flux output of the magnet, and is useful in estimating the flux output of the magnet in various conditions. As a first order approximation, Bd/Hd=Lm/Lg, where Lm is the length of the magnet, and Lg is the length of an air gap that the magnet is subjected to. Pc is therefore a function of the geometry of the magnetic circuit.

Pole Pieces: Ferromagnetic materials placed on magnetic poles used to shape and alter the effect of lines of flux.

Relative Permeability , μr: The ratio of permeability of a medium to that of a vacuum:μr =μ/μ0. In the cgs system,μ0 =1 in a vacuum by definition. The permeability of air is also for all practical purposes equal to 1 in the cgs system.

Remenance, Bd: The magnetic induction which emains in a magnetic circuit after the removal of an applied magnetizing force. If there is an air gap
in the circuit, the remanence will be less than the residual induction, Br.

Residual Induction, Br: This is the point at which the hysteresis loop crosses the B axis at zero magnetizing force, and represents the maximum
flux output from the given magnet material. By definition, this point occurs at zero air gap, and therefore cannot be seen in practical use of magnet materials.

Return Path: Conduction elements in a magnetic circuit which provide a low reluctance path for the magnetic flux.

Reversible Temperature Coefficient: A measure of the reversible changes in flux caused by temperature variations.

Saturation: The condition under which all elementary magnetic moments have become oriented in one direction. A ferromagnetic material is saturated when an increase in the applied magnetizing force produces no increase in induction. Saturation flux densities for steels are in the range of 16,000 to 20,000 Gauss.

Stabilization: Exposure of a magnet to demagnetizing influences expected to be encountered in use in order to prevent irreversible losses during actual operation. Demagnetizing influences can be caused by high or low temperatures, or by external magnetic fields.

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